Back in April I posted about the fossil remains of Luzia Woman found in Brazil. Most anthropologists, including myself, believe she was a Paleo-Indian who may well have been part of the first wave of migrants into South America. The fossil remains have been dated at about 11.5 kya and in terms of all things anthropological that’s not that long ago. In fact, it was towards the end of the last glaciation. You can find my original post at the link below. Continue Reading
H/T to JR Bentley for sending us this research article………..
It would be an understatement to say that there are problems with the Out-of-Africa (OOA) theory and finally new research and reanalysis of prior research is attempting to correct some of those problems but what is being found is that the OOA may be absolutely WRONG to begin with. This becomes especially obvious when genetic evidence is looked at. In fact, WORLD science is now leaving the OOA theory behind and a Chinese research team is advancing an out-of-ASIA theory for modern human origins based on Y-DNA & mtDNA evidence and, thus, they are reviving the Multiregional Theory for human evolution based on autosomal evidence. The field of genetic research is becoming more precise and I think that is fantastic because it is now beginning to give us a new picture of human evolution and migration patterns!! Finally, we are getting some real concrete proof of what was and what was NOT.
The latest research by Chinese geneticists suggests that about 2 mya the first split occurred in modern human autosomes. Further, they’ve uncovered genetic evidence of Y and mtDNA having originated in East Asia and dispersing outward from East Asia via HYBRIDIZATION by archaic human ancestors!! This research strongly suggests a EURASIAN origin rather than an African origin for ancient human ancestors!! The primary research team is being led by Shi Huang who is a US educated and trained geneticist.
Huang’s research confirms genetic diversity is highest in Africans and lowest in Amerindians. His team also confirms Africans & Amerindians are genetically most divergent from each other. Africans are found to be closer to each other than they are to other groups and that New world sub-populations are more distinct from each other than other continental groups. Further, they’ve also found that Amerindians have the world’s highest values of intergroup diversity.
The findings of this research are currently under peer review and the team argues that African genetic diversity is NOT a function of greater age of African hominins but is a product of selection! This is supported by data showing increased African diversity in the study. Yuan uses autosomal molecular divergence dates as evidence for multiregional evolution. That date is derived from estimated molecular divergence between autosomes of major human groups to have taken place 1.96–1.91 mya which is consistent with paleobiological evidence for a Homo (human) migration out of Africa 2 myr. Continue Reading
Question from a recent email:
“I understand that in Florida there was a discovery of bog people at a site called “Windover” and that these remains found in the mud were well-preserved and date back thousands of years. It’s also my understanding that these people were northern Europeans as proven by their DNA. Is this true?”
I blogged about America’s Bog People back in September 2016 (see link below) but let me review it here. The skeletal remains were discovered by a backhoe operator in 1982 in Brevard County, Florida. Remains included men, women, children, and infants. In all thus far 168 skeletal remains have been discovered buried in peat covered by about 3 feet of water. The remains show evidence of disease and healed wounds and some show signs of having suffered from Osteoarthritis and malnutrition. Some showed signs of skull fractures as well. Most were buried in the fetal position with their faces facing north. The bodies were held down by stakes to prevent them from rising to the surface as their bodies decomposed.
Some of the bodies had preserved brain tissue from which DNA was obtained. DNA analysis indicated that these people were of Asian origins and had a rare haplogroup X gene. DNA also showed NO BIOLOGICAL AFFILIATION OR RELATIONSHIP to modern Native Americans known to have lived in the area! Dating revealed results between 6990-8120 years ago via C14 dating techniques. This is not the only site. There are several sites in Florida with underwater/peat burials and it is believed these people may have believed water would prevent the spirits of the dead from rising. Continue Reading
Cerutti Mastodon Site in San Diego, California discoveries indicate that early humans were in North America at least 130 kya.
Calico Hills Early Man Site in California indicate humans were in North America 100-200 kya.
Bluefish Cave Site, Canada indicates humans were in North America 24 kya.
Puebla, Mexico Site indicates humans were in Mexico 200-250 kya
Pedra Furada Site in Brazil indicate humans were in South America 48-60 kya.
And there are more…………….
When we take a look at these sites and the dates they have yielded we find that it appears humans have been in the Americas since 250-200 kya. But this is far from being the generally accepted timeframe for when humans migrated into the Americas! That timeline says we migrated across the Bering Landbridge around 15 kya! However, the more archaeologists discover, the more it appears that “someone” was in the Americas before 15 kya and that “mystery population” is affectionately known as “POPULATION Y.” Additionally, the more we learn about Paleoindians the more apparent it becomes that they did NOT look like modern Native Americans and, in fact, were quite different. At the tip of South America we have a people known as the Fuegians who ironically have many features sen in Homo erectus and we find the same features in a people known as the Pericues who lived at the tip of Baja California. But, according to mainstream thinking H. erectus was long extinct before these timeframes. I suggest that hypothesis is WRONG and note that some researchers believe H. erectus could have existed up until 20-30 kya!! Continue Reading
Nestled in the State of Piaui, Brazil is a site affectionately known as “pierced rock” or in the Brazilian tongue as “Pedra Furada.” This site is important because it is a collection of over 800 archaeological sites which contain hundreds of rock paintings dating back to 11 kya. Along with the rock paintings there are stone shards and the charcoal remains of ancient fires all of which indicate an ancient human presence in the area in remote times.
Back in 1973 an archaeological team from France and Brazil excavated a site in the SE part of the Sierra de Capivara National Park in Brazil and this is when the first artifacts from this site were discovered. These find were reported and published in 1986 by Brazilian archeologist Niede Guidon. She and others since that time have conducted more excavations into the site.
The site was named Pedra Furada and primarily it is composed of rock shelters used by humans thousands of years ago. During the first excavations dates using C14 carbon dating were obtained ranging from 48-32 kyr. Repeated analysis confirmed these dates but extended the range to possibly 60 kya! This falls near the dates obtained at the San Diego California site known as Cerutti Mastodon Site recently reported (see my post on that) to be about 130 kyr making them far older than the generally accepted dates for human habitation of the Americas which is roughly 20,000 years ago.
Guidon established 15 levels at the site with Pedra Furada being the oldest level. These 3 levels are cultural levels. The other two levels are the Sierra Talhada level (12-7 kyr) and the Agreste level. The site has hundreds of rock paintings dated between 5-11 kyr. In addition, another site within the national park includes the Toca da Tira Peia site which shows signs of human habitation dating back to 22 kyr.
The finds at the Pedra Furada site are, as to be expected, “controversial” because of their age. They also directly contradict the “Clovis First Theory” proving that the Clovis Culture was NOT the first group of humans in the Americas! This is an ongoing heated dispute today with little to no agreement on what this discovery means as it is with the Cerutti Mastodon Site in California and others across the Americas.
The Pedra Furada site gives evidence for what is known as the “Long Chronology Theory” which holds that the first peoples in the Americas came at a much earlier date (21-40 kya or more) followed by more recent migrations into the Americas. The alternative theory, and most accepted, is known as the “Short Chronology Theory, that holds humans first came into the Americas around 15-20 kya followed by later migrations. I personally hold to the Long Chronology Theory!
As with any find in the Americas involving dates that exceed the 20 kyr mark the finds at Pedra Furada are controversial to say the least. Some researchers believe the associated artifacts are real artifacts while others think they are nothing more than mere geofacts. To summarize my feelings about this matter allow me to quote The Guardian’s writer Alex Bellos who writes:
“US archaeologists believe that the artifacts are geofacts created naturally because the North Americans CANNOT BELIEVE that they do not have the oldest site!”. Seems we have a big problem with ethnocentrism in the US today.
Then we have David Meltzer of Southern Methodist University who says if there really were pre-Clovis people in South America then why do we not find them in North America too? Well I think the Cerutti Mastodon Site in San Diego, CA and the Puebla site in Mexico along with others in North America pretty much answer that question. There is CLEAR evidence of pre-Clovis people in North America too but the mainstream in the US is busy ignoring it or covering it up!! Do they even know what they are looking at anymore???
Guidon says the charcoal is NOT from natural fires as it is only found inside the rock shelters. She says, “Americans criticize WITHOUT KNOWING. The problem is not mine! The problem is theirs! AMERICANS SHOULD EXCAVATE MORE AND WRITE LESS!!” I wholeheartedly agree!! Get out into the field and away from the damned desk!!!
The artifacts at the site are rather simple and we find the same simplicity at the Cerutti and other sites. It would seem that those early people who came into the Americas lagged behind a bit in improvements in stone tool technology for whatever reasons. Nevertheless, this is an IMPORTANT SITE in my mind and yet more PROOF that early humans were in the Americas long before commonly believed!
Finally, just to note there are several sites in the US that predate the Clovis Culture and these include the following:
Cerutti Mastodon Site, San Diego, CA dated at 130 kyr
Calico Hills Early Man Site, California, dated at between 100-200 kyr
Buttermilk Creek Complex, Texas, dated at 15.5 kyr
Meadowcroft Rock Shelter, Pennsylvania, dated at 16-19 kyr
Topper Site, South Carolina, dated at 50 kyr
Page-Ladson Site, Florida, dated at 15 kyr
Cactus Hills Site, Virginia, dated at 18-20 kyr (evidence of Solutrean Hypothesis)
The Schaefer and Heboir Mammoth Sites, Wisconsin, dated at 12-13 kyr
Lovewell Site, Kansas, dated at 22 kyr
La Sena Site, Nebraska, 18-20 kyr
Paisley Caves, Oregon, dated at 12-14 kyr
Pic from the Pedra Pintada site
In a recent post on this blog we learned about the Haida people of British Columbia, Canada and how their oral tradition speaks of their ancestors sailing across the Pacific to Hawaii and even to Asia. The post I’m referring to is at:
From British Columbia to Hawaii is 2,763 miles and from Hawaii to Japan is about 4, 116 miles. So what we are talking about here is a distance between BC and Japan of about 6,879 miles and that is a pretty long distance. Question is when the Haida ancestors were doing all of this sailing upon the Pacific waters was the distance between these lands as long as it is today?
I bring this subject up because there is something known as “The Expanding Earth Hypothesis” which basically says our planet is growing and has grown bigger and bigger since the origins of our planet began. This theory has been mostly rejected by mainstream scientists today but let’s take a look at it for ourselves. Continue Reading
H/T to JR Bentley for bringing this to my attention on his blog at:
The media is claiming this find is a “mysterious village” discovered in Canada that is over 10,000 years older than the Egyptian pyramids. Mystery? Really? Not to some of us who have long advocated man crossing into the New World via the sea IN BOATS. Yes! I said BOATS!!
A team of researchers from the Hakai Institute at the University of Victoria and local Native Americans have discovered a 14 kya village with artifacts dating back to the last Ice Age. The site is now believed to be one of the oldest human settlements ever found in North America. Ironically, this discovery also proves the oral traditions of the Heltsuk Nation that for generations have told stories of an ancient coastal village. I think it’s fantastic that research has once AGAIN proven Native American oral history! Continue Reading