As I’ve stated on this blog many times before I have no doubt that modern humans interbred with the Neanderthals more than we think. Recent studies have shown that some of the Neanderthal genes within us mods contribute to our immunity and to diseases. Now new studies are showing that Neanderthal genes contribute to other modern human characteristics such as our hair color, eye color, skin tone, sleep habits, mood, and even a person’s smoking status! In fact, what we are finding is that Neanderthal genes play a significant role in modern humans outside of Africa!
In terms of skin tone researchers have found that Neanderthal alleles contribute to light skin tone while other Neanderthal alleles contribute to darker skin tones and the same is true of skin colors. This find kind of shocked researchers because what the suggest is that Neanderthals varied in their hair color and skin tone. No they weren’t all red headed, sorry.
When modern humans arrived in Eurasia over 100 kya the Neanderthals were already well established there and had been for thousands of years or longer. They were most likely very well adapted to those climates and environments moreso than our newly arriving ancestors were. Continue Reading
A new study by the Uppsala University et. al. has pushed the emergence of modern humans back to at least 300 kya and possibly even to 350 kya. Funny how not so long ago we used to think our species emerged 100 kya, then 200 kya, and now 300-350 kya isn’t it? Frankly, I think even newer research will soon push our emergence back even further! You can read the whole story at the link below.
Artistic bust of Peking Man
So consider this in perspective………. Homo erectus is believed to have went extinct around 143 kya so if modern humans emerged 300-350 kya then that means that these two species COEXISTED for at least 100-150 thousand years! And there was a time when H. erectus, modern humans, Heidelbergensis, and Neanderthals coexisted! And you don’t think all of these human species interbred? Think again LOL!!
Regarding Neanderthals two new studies have emerged. One suggests Neanderthal-Denisovans almost disappeared after separating from modern humans and that find challenges the conventional theory about all three species! Another study has revealed diet may be the blame for the Neanderthals demise in contrast to the diet of modern humans which enabled us to survive. Perhaps. I’m sure diet was important just as it is today but, again, I assert that the Neanderthals didn’t go extinct at all. They interbred with modern humans and produced viable offspring hybrids! In my mind what appears to have happened is (borrowing a line from Star Trek) modern humans came along and for all other species resistance was futile! These other species didn’t go extinct. We had sex with them and produced hybrid offspring capable of breeding and producing more hybrids! And that’s how we mods became the Mutt People we are today!!! Sorry…no pure races left and no pure human species left (if there was ever) and there hasn’t been for a long time. Want personal proof? Research your own ancestry and it will become as clear as day to you. Continue Reading
Aye where do I begin? ……………… So I have a friend who had her DNA tested by one of the many labs now testing ancestry DNA and yesterday she got her results which she found very disappointing. She paid almost $200 for the analysis. Why so expensive? Because the lab she chose said for an extra charge they could sequence her DNA from “prehistoric humans.” I assumed they meant Neanderthal DNA but she assumed they meant……well come to find out…..she thought they could sequence her “handyman” DNA (Homo habilis)!!
Before she even paid the charge I told her that it is impossible for any lab to sequence H. habilis DNA (whom she refers to as the “monkey people) because we don’t have any viable DNA from that species with which to compare to. But she wouldn’t listen. She was sure they could do it. I told her that the only possible analysis they could do was related to the percentage of Neanderthal DNA in her genes and that would not be more than 4%. But she wouldn’t listen and went right ahead and paid the extra charge to have her “monkey people” DNA analyzed along with her ancestry. Hate to say it but “I told you so.”
As I mentioned, yesterday she got her DNA results and they were NOT what she expected at all. She has thought herself to be primarily “American and Mexican Indian.” I have questioned her about this as she doesn’t even remotely look like either. Her results showed that in fact she is mainly South American likely from the areas of Ecuador and Peru. That’s exactly what I told her the results would reveal as she looks very much like the native people in the highlands of those areas. Her results also showed that she had a percentage of Sephardi Jew in her which she found “very shocking” as she had no idea. Then came the results of the “monkey people” DNA. Continue Reading
H/T to JR Bentley for sending us this research article………..
It would be an understatement to say that there are problems with the Out-of-Africa (OOA) theory and finally new research and reanalysis of prior research is attempting to correct some of those problems but what is being found is that the OOA may be absolutely WRONG to begin with. This becomes especially obvious when genetic evidence is looked at. In fact, WORLD science is now leaving the OOA theory behind and a Chinese research team is advancing an out-of-ASIA theory for modern human origins based on Y-DNA & mtDNA evidence and, thus, they are reviving the Multiregional Theory for human evolution based on autosomal evidence. The field of genetic research is becoming more precise and I think that is fantastic because it is now beginning to give us a new picture of human evolution and migration patterns!! Finally, we are getting some real concrete proof of what was and what was NOT.
The latest research by Chinese geneticists suggests that about 2 mya the first split occurred in modern human autosomes. Further, they’ve uncovered genetic evidence of Y and mtDNA having originated in East Asia and dispersing outward from East Asia via HYBRIDIZATION by archaic human ancestors!! This research strongly suggests a EURASIAN origin rather than an African origin for ancient human ancestors!! The primary research team is being led by Shi Huang who is a US educated and trained geneticist.
Huang’s research confirms genetic diversity is highest in Africans and lowest in Amerindians. His team also confirms Africans & Amerindians are genetically most divergent from each other. Africans are found to be closer to each other than they are to other groups and that New world sub-populations are more distinct from each other than other continental groups. Further, they’ve also found that Amerindians have the world’s highest values of intergroup diversity.
The findings of this research are currently under peer review and the team argues that African genetic diversity is NOT a function of greater age of African hominins but is a product of selection! This is supported by data showing increased African diversity in the study. Yuan uses autosomal molecular divergence dates as evidence for multiregional evolution. That date is derived from estimated molecular divergence between autosomes of major human groups to have taken place 1.96–1.91 mya which is consistent with paleobiological evidence for a Homo (human) migration out of Africa 2 myr. Continue Reading
A new look at archaic human DNA by the University of Utah has come to some interesting and “revolutionary” findings but sadly what they have found doesn’t fit at all with the status quo so it’s being ignored. However, I STRONGLY suspect that what the U of U has found is closer to the TRUTH in terms of the human evolution story than what we have now!
Using a new method for analyzing DNA sequence data researchers at the University of Utah have reconstructed the early history of archaic humans and it contradicts what we believe to be so for modern humans (H. sapiens), Neanderthals, and Denisovans. One thing they discovered quickly was that Neanderthal and Denisovan populations almost went extinct but 300 generations later the Neanderthal population grew to TENS OF THOUSANDS of individuals living in segregated populations, that is, they mainly lived apart from Denisovans and modern humans.
“This hypothesis is against conventional wisdom, but IT MAKES MORE SENSE that the conventional wisdom,” said Alan Rogers who is a professor of Anthropology and lead author of the study. And indeed it does!! The conventional wisdom holds the view that Neanderthal numbers were small when modern humans came upon the scene…somewhere around 1000 individuals. But this study shows that that number grossly underestimates the Neanderthal population at the time. The team calculated that Neanderthals and Denisovans separated around 744 kya which is much earlier than conventional wisdom holds. The study also questions the conventional wisdom that Neanderthal populations only amounted to about 1000 individuals and that the REAL Neanderthal population may have numbered in the tens of thousands!! Continue Reading
Most fossil remains of ancient human ancestors have been found in East Africa in the Rift Valley and that area was once dotted by volcanoes. Volcanic ash killed these ancestors, buried them, and preserved them but that is not the case when it comes to Eurasia and that is ONE reason why we don’t find the amount of ancient human remains like that found in East Africa. That said, however, there have been some ancient remains found and I want to focus on those found in China in this post.
Artistic bust of Peking Man
Peking Man (aka: Beijing Man) was actually pieced together from fossil remains of several different individuals found at the Dragon Bone Hill site in Zhoukoudian near Beijing, China. It is an Eurasian H. erectus. It has prominent brow ridges, a saggital keel, an occipital bun, and a protruding upper jaw (prognathism) but no chin. These are all primitive features but its cranial capacity is about 1075 cc. The teeth and arm bones are almost indistinguishable from those of modern man! Also there is evidence of tool use was found nearby. Peking Man is estimated to be 500-300 kyr (thousand years old) which is older than Kabwe Man of Africa also known as “Broken Hill Man” and “Rhodesian Man.” The original skull of Peking Man was lost in WW2. There is also evidence of fire use at site as well as evidence of tool use and manufacturing. These were flaked stone tools and they also show he was right-handed. (according to Howells 1948, pg 49 et al). Continue Reading
A recent study earlier this month by the Max PLanck Institute for the Science of Human History reports that Neanderthals received a genetic contribution from Africa by hominins who were closely related to modern humans more than 220 kya. The study obtained mtDNA (inherited from our mothers) from the femur bone of a prehistoric European hominin in an effort to resolve what appears to be our complicated relationship with Neanderthals. The genetic data has now given us a timeline for a possible migration out of Africa that took place after Neanderthal ancestors arrived in Europe and suggests Neanderthals were more closely related to modern humans than any other hominin species. What this means is that there may have been a migration out of Africa of hominins 220 kya.
What the study suggest is that after the Neanderthals arrived in Europe there was another migration out of Africa and those people interbred with the Neanderthals in Europe leaving their genetic marker in the Neanderthals mtDNA and these hominins appear to be closely related to modern humans. In addition, although likely this took place 220 kya it could have taken place as far back as 470 kya and may NOT have been a one time event either! Continue Reading