Chinampa was a type of Mesoamerican agriculture that involved using small rectangular areas of fertile and arable land to grow crops on shallow lake beds. In the Valley of Mexico chinampas were made by the shoreline of the northern part of the central lake system by the Aztecs. The central lake also contained their capital, Tenochtitlan, which is Mexico City today. Continue Reading
“The Northern Toltec in the American Southwest”
Authors: Dr Roberto Peron, Barb Benson, Rob L.
Dr. Cyclone Covey was a history professor at Wake Forest University in North Carolina and he had some interesting theories. One book he authored entitled “Calalus” tells of what he believes was a Roman Jewish colony in Arizona northeast of Tucson. He believed the “Tucson Artifacts” were real although most scholars believe them to be fakes. I’ll be posting about these artifacts after I examine them myself very soon.
Covey believed various Jews sailed from the Portuguese port of Porto Cale and founded a city in Florida which they named “Cale.” Today this alleged ancient settlement is known as Ocala which is in North-Central Florida. He also held the view that some Jews escaped Rome and they also set sail to the Americas from Porto Cale in Portugal. Once across the Atlantic they established a Jewish-Roman colony in 775 A. D. near Tucson, Arizona. Further, he believes that during this time the Toltec controlled most of what is today Arizona and New Mexico and that they continuously fought with these new arrivals from Europe until decades later when they finally defeated them and took the Jews captive after destroying their two cities in Arizona. So, these northern Toltec took the Jewish-Roman survivors captive and marched them to Tula, the Toltec capital in Mexico. He also points out that the Toltec emperor at this time was white skinned with a beard! That the Toltec may have dominated Arizona and New Mexico is believed to be so by several researchers so Covey’s thesis is not all that far-fetched! Continue Reading
Mainstream archaeologists say that the ancient people’s of Chaco Canyon in New Mexico turned into cannibals and that brought the demise of their society. However, the Pueblo people (including the Hopi) find this assumption insulting and offensive and their own tribal archaeologist do NOT agree with mainstream academic archaeologist as to why the people of Chaco “abandoned” their great city. Instead, they speak of the people of Chaco moving north due to drought and poor harvests which, in my mind, is most likely TRUE! Two things you might want to keep in mind when it comes to SOME archaeologists of academia is that when they can’t explain something they pass it off as having something to due with religion. And if religion doesn’t fit the bill then there’s always cannibalism! Sloppy thinking and sloppy assumptions in my book!!
Tribal archaeologists listen to the oral traditions and stories of the tribal elders and from these they also draw on available archaeological evidence found at the site. From these they draw their own conclusions about as to why the people evacuated Chaco. The important thing here is that they include the oral traditions and stories of the tribal elders that have been passed down from generation to generation unlike mainstream researchers who tend to summarily pass off these oral stories as “superstition.”
When it comes to these ancient stories and oral traditions one thing that MUST be understood is that ancient teachers and wisdom keepers used metaphors and analogies in their stories as well as symbols. Symbolism was highly important in ancient teaching methods and what we must realize is that in ancient times MOST people hearing the stories told by the Wisdom Keepers understood what the symbols meant. Modern teachers today do not teach in that manner and that is one reason why modern scholars and common folk have a tendency to taking these oral stories literally. But, these oral stories were never intended to be taken literally and to understand them, to understand what these oral stories are telling us, we must begin to understand the symbolism used as well as the analogies and metaphors used by our Ancient Ones.
We can see this SAME PRINCIPLE closer to “home.” We see this same ancient teaching method in the Christian Bible! Consider the New Testament and especially the books pertaining to the “end of the world” such as Revelation. these passages are overflowing with symbolism, metaphor, and allegory! Stars, eagles, swords, warriors, shields, crowns, etc. These are NOT to be taken literally because they are SYMBOLS! And if we truly want to know the true meaning in these prophetic events we must begin to understand the symbolism employed. Perhaps I will address Biblical symbolism in a future post but for now this post pertains to ancient Native America symbolism, allegory, and metaphor.
For example, the Hopi speak of a past age in which the people living in that era used “flying shields” as a means of transport. The Hopi are NOT talking about giant leather shields flying through the air like “magic carpets”! Rather, they are referring to some sort of transport device used by the people of that era to get themselves around that resembled a shield. Maybe it was that the shape of this device was round. Maybe it was oblong. Maybe it was star-shaped. Not all shields are round! Maybe it was even shaped like a tube with wings resembling what we’d call today an airplane!! The Hopi use the term “flying shield” to describe this ancient transport device because a shield was the only thing they knew that they could use to describe this unknown device. Like all other people past and present they use what they knew to describe something they did not know and we do the same thing today. Continue Reading
In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue and discovered…….America? Well kinda but not exactly. In fact, the more we discover the more it looks like the infamous explorer Columbus was somewhat of a late-comer to the Americas.
We know that those adventurous Vikings were in North America in Newfoundland long before Columbus and there is some speculation that they even sailed through the St Lawrence Seaway down into the Great Lakes and into Minnesota. Some researchers have even theorized that these brave souls even sailed down the Mississippi River and came into the Gulf of Mexico and possibly ended up on the coast of the Yucatan where their encounters with the Natives may not have ended well. But what about their trip back to Scandinavia?
Researchers have speculated that these Viking explorers and colonizers of the New World long before the arrival of Columbus may have taken a few Native American women along with them on their voyage back to Europe. This would have been about 500 years before Columbus returned to Spain with a few captive Native Americans.
We know that these Vikings set up colonies on the shores of North America around 1000 AD. What we don’t know is how a family in Iceland came to acquire a rather surprising genetic marker dating back to that time (1000 AD). That genetic marker is mostly found in Native Americans not Icelanders!
The first Native Americans actually arrived in Europe during the 11th century brought by the Vikings not Columbus. A genetic study led by deCODE Genetics which is a leading genome research lab in Iceland has discovered a unique genetic marker (gene) present in only 4 family lines in Iceland. The gene is named C1e and it is a mitochondrial gene passed down through a female mother. This suggests Native American women either voluntarily or involuntarily came back to Europe with Viking explorers and had children in their new home, Iceland. There are about 80 Icelanders presently who have this distinct genetic marker in their genes.
One problem with this theory is that the C1e genes may have come from some other part of the world and not necessarily from Native Americans. No living Native American population today has the exact DNA lineage as the one found in these 80 Icelanders BUT it may be a case in which those Native Americans brought to Iceland by Vikings simply went extinct which, in my opinion, is most likely the case. Continue Reading
At the Mesoamerican (Mayan) site known as the Temple of Warriors there are plenty of murals and on those murals are depicted not only native peoples but also non-native white skinned peoples. Question is, just who were these white people?
The murals I’m referring to are in the Temple of Warriors pyramid and some researchers are now suggesting that these white skinned people were none other than Norsemen, Vikings! Could it be possible?
Consider the Norsemen for a moment. They came from Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, Denmark) and they had a real talent for sailing the open seas in their long boats. We know they landed in Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland. There is also evidence suggesting they navigated the St Lawrence Seaway and may have explored parts of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. On the other side of the world the Norsemen explored all over Europe and may even have made some expeditions into what is today the Middle East and Northern Africa. We also know that they sailed down the Volga and other mighty rivers in Russia all the way down to the Black Sea. In fact, Rurik who founded what is today Russia (it was called Kievan Rus) was a Viking and his people the Rus were Viking peoples! So is it possible that these sailing experts got to Mexico on some of their voyages? I think so! Additionally, there is some speculation that the Vikings also sailed down the Mississippi River in the US all the way down into the Gulf of Mexico. If so then the sea trip across the Gulf of Mexico from what is now New Orleans to the Yucatan would have been a piece of cake for the Norsemen.
The Vikings may have gotten to Mexico at the time the Mayans were building the Temple of the Warriors or shortly thereafter. They could have been the “white lords” Mesoamerican legends refer to. These “white lords” came along before the coming of the Spanish and long before Columbus. In fact, on the flip-side there are not only Aztec and Mayan tales of “white lords” who came from the sea but there are Norse Sagas that bespeak of what MIGHT be Viking voyages to Mexico!
One of the Norse sagas is known as the Eyrbggia saga which mentions not only one but TWO possible Viking voyages to the Yucatan (Mayan country). This saga, some now claim, describes how one Bjorn (the name means “bear”) Breidovikingakappi (meaning “Bjorn the champion of the Broadwickers”) sailed around Ireland and somehow landed in Mexico. Further, there are three traditions in the Norse Sagas that say that in 965 AD and 986 AD one Ari Marson, another Viking, set sail from Ireland attempting to reach Greenland but ran into a storm and was thrown off course. He may have reached the coast of the Yucatan in Mexico six days later rather than Greenland. Continue Reading
When I was about 8 or 9 years old my brother and I were hunting with my father in an area southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona known as Sycamore Canyon. We’d finished hunting and were headed back home but we had to stop along the way for my father to relieve himself. A very large bald eagle was circling overhead as we stopped and while my father did his business my brother and I got out of the truck to watch the eagle. He was magnifient! I walked over to the other side of the dirt road near the base of what appeared to be a hill. I noticed a finely cut reddish stone protruding out of the dirt at the base of the hill and called my father and brother over to look at it. My father glanced at it and simply passed it off telling me, “Oh that’s just the foundation of some old pioneers house” and off we went back home. Well, even at my young age it certainly looked like something more than some old pioneers homestead foundation as the stone was perfectly cut, from what I could see of it, and polished. The reason I mention this story is because for decades now there have been rumors of an Aztec or Toltec pyramid located somewhere in Arizona but no one has ever found it. Even today I wonder if that stone might have been it. What was buried under that hill? Some old pioneers homestead or the legendary pyramid? I was young and do not know for certain where we were at the time other than we were leaving the Sycamore Canyon area and heading back to Flagstaff but someday I’m going back there to see if I can find the spot.
Here’s another story. South of Winslow, Arizona just past Sunset Pass where Highway 87 makes a southwestward turn and just before the turn off to Chavez Pass over on the east side of the highway behind a barbed wire fence used to sit a very large and obviously cut square piece of white stone. It was there for decades and I always thought is was out of place. The landscape behind this stone block was strewn with smaller white stones. Some appeared cut while others appeared cut off of larger junks. None of them were polished but they all were “in the ruff.” I always wanted to stop there when I was a boy and check it out because the whole site sure did look like some kind of ancient settlement to me! But, we never stopped and when I got older and was able to drive I went there once and found everything gone. All that remained were a few scattered pieces of white stone that looked like they’d been hacked off from larger pieces. The huge square cut stone was gone also and it was funny because outside of that location there were no such white stones at all. What happened to it all? Was it something natural or had there once been an ancient settlement there at one time built by some culture such as possibly the Aztec, Mayans, or Toltecs? And what happened to the big square cut stonework and the other cut stones in the area? Someone obviously whisked them away but who and why? Continue Reading
New DNA evidence suggests that infectious diseases have been around a lot longer than we previously thought at it is also suggesting that humans coming out of Africa may have infected Neanderthals who likely did not have a natural immunity to the diseases. Although this did not cause Neanderthals to go extinct it certainly would have contributed to it.
When Cortez and his Spaniards invaded Mexico the Mexica (Aztecs) had no natural immunity to the diseases like smallpox that they carried with them. Thousands of Mexica died of smallpox and other diseases that Europeans had natural immunity to. The same scenario played out in the US and South America when Europeans arrived and native populations became infected causing thousands of deaths. So it is no stretch of the imagination to see how Homo sapiens coming out of Africa could have brought infectious diseases with them to which the Neanderthals had no natural immunity and resulted in their demise.
This new information comes from Dr Charlotte Houldcroft published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. She suggests that H. sapiens coming out of Africa would have been a “significant reservoir of tropical diseases.” She goes on to suggest that such disease infecting the Eurasian Neanderthals would have been catastrophic. This would have tipped the balance of their survival. She further suggests the scenario may not have played out like it did when Cortez or Columbus came to the Americas but I think she is likely wrong about that assumption. I think that it is HIGHLY likely that it did play out in the SAME pattern as that of Cortez and Columbus when they came to the Americas.
Finally some evidence and theory that makes sense as to what the fate of the Neanderthals was instead of the mythical theory that they just sort of disappeared into thin air!!!
For more information on this subject see: