A paper that came out in September 2017 by Professor Ulfur Arnason calls for a new paradigm and it’s making some waves. Professor Arnason is a neuroscientist at the University of Lund in Sweden and in the paper he places the LAST COMMON ANCESTOR of Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) and the Neanderthals somewhere in EURASIA, not Africa. Professor Arnason argues that the ancesotrs of the African KhoeSan and Mbuti people formed the first exodus of modern humans INTO AFRICA out of ASIA AND EUROPE. If he’s right then his research calls the Out of Africa theory (OOA) into question, once again, as so much research is now doing but it’s all being ignored, summarily!
A simplified view of Hss migrations. The shaded area signifies an undefined Asian(Eurasian) area from which Hss dispersed. The red track shows the potential routes of KhoeSan, Mbuti and Yoruba outside the Hsnn range. KhoeSan and Mbuti may have diverged before their migration into Africa. The arrow-headed lines between Mbuti and Yoruba mark potential genetic exchange. The green track represents the common Asian origin of indigenous Australians, Papuans-New Guineans and the Andamanese (Mallick et al., 2016). Altai shows the location of the genetic contribution of Hss into Hsn (Kuhlwilm et al., 2016) and Daoxian Cave the location of the palaeontological Hss finds described by Liu et al. (2015). Image credit: Úlfur Árnason
Common belief is that the ancient human ancestors of modern humans lived somewhere in Africa and Homo sapiens evolved there first and migrated out of Africa to Europe and Asia. Most scientists hold the belief that the exact dating of this emergence out of Africa of our ancient ancestors remains to be resolved but they are ever so sure they will discover a date soon. However, the research of Professor Arnason suggests that the origination of Homo sapiens sapiens was in EURASIA NOT IN AFRICA!
Neanderthals and modern humans seem to have parted ways, at least genetically, sometime before 500 kya (thousand years ago). Arnason argues that this date places the first of our species somewhere in Eurasia and he adds this to what we know about the geographical range of Neanderthals.
Professor Arnason said, “The EXCLUSIVE occurrence of Neanderthals in EUROPE and ASIA and their ABSENCE from Africa restricts their origins to EURASIA,” and indeed it DOES! He went on to also say, “As a consequence, the origin of their sister-group (Homo sapiens sapiens; modern humans) should be placed in the SAME CONTINENT (ie: EURASIA).” He goes on saying that this hypothesis would then be in “compliance with the LCA (last common ancestor) understanding that the LCS of any two sister groups CANNOT be separated, neither in time nor space.” Amen to that!! Continue Reading
Yesterday I posted about the 2017 major story in anthropology being the mastodon kill site found near San Diego, California which has turned everything upside down because it proves early humans where in North America at least 130 kya. This find has created a lot of controversy but, alas, the proof is there! However, I do NOT consider this story to be the major story of 2017! Rather, the REAL MAJOR STORY of 2017 is being ignored. Surprised? You shouldn’t be because the real story of 2017 completely upends all of our little theories when it comes to ancient human ancestors and researchers are hoping it will just go away.
9.7 mya fossil teeth found in Germany 2017
The REAL MAJOR story of 2017 was the discovery of ancient human ancestor fossil remains found in Germany which are believed to be from Australopithecus!! And that poses a little problem because Australopithecus fossil remains have never been found outside of Africa!!!
I reported and posted about this MAJOR DISCOVERY last October (2017) and you can find my original post on the sidebar to the right. Basically, this find put a final death blow into the Out of Africa Theory (OOA) as it was completely unexpected and finding EVIDENCE of Australopithecus outside of Africa just doesn’t fit what we though was. But obviously it was NOT! Continue Reading
Another Death Blow to the Out of Africa Theory!!
As I’ve said many times before, “What we thought was…was NOT. And what we thought was not….. WAS.” And when it comes to the story of human evolution this appears to be even more so than we have thought. I say this because a MAJOR DISCOVERY has now been revealed in Germany. Fossil teeth were found in Western Germany about a year ago and the reason that the discovery wasn’t announced before now is that researchers wanted to be certain about the dating. This discovery is nothing short of SENSATIONAL! In fact, you might even call it SPECTACULAR!! The teeth have been dated at 9.7 myr (million years old).
9.7 mya fossil teeth found in Germany 2017
To put this into perspective let me remind you of the fossil footprints found on the island of Crete a month ago Those footprints have been dated back to 5.7 mya. That puts these footprints in the realm of existence of Ardipithecus and Australopithecus. But they were not supposed to be in Crete but Africa according to the dying Out of Africa theory which is OBVIOUSLY WRONG! Yet, there they were on the island of Crete for the whole world to see! Many researchers just couldn’t believe the find because what it proved was that our earliest ancient human ancestors were wondering around Europe at the same time or maybe even EARLIER than they were in Africa! These footprints and other finds over the last few years have put the OOA into jeopardy and with the newest find in Germany the OOA now is most certainly WRONG! Continue Reading
A research study published back in June of 2015 provides some interesting information about how Bigfoot may kill its prey. The research was conducted and published by Aaron Mills, Gerald Mills, and M.N. Townsend who discovered three bone piles and track evidence within a 17 mile radius of Mount St. Helen’s in Washington state. Also found were kill sites, animal skull remains, and animal vertebrae remains. What is interesting is scavengers seem to have avoided these sites which suggests the predator(s) may have been close to the areas.
Skulls of elk and deer showed their snouts broken by blunt force trauma and the spinal columns broken also by blunt force trauma. The predator must have been a very large creature in order to do this. No evidence was found of any clubs or weapons used to kill the deer and elk but that’s not unusual as the predator(s) likely reuse their weapons on other kills. In the case of bigfoot I’d say the weapon was likely a very large, heavy branch or rock.
What is interesting is the apparent way in which the elk and deer were killed at these kill sites. It is clear that the predator is an “ambush hunter.” It also appears that the predator first snapped the snout of the animal likely to hinder its breathing if it ran off so it could be easily followed. I think the predator then used the weapon to crack the spinal column into two or more pieces resulting in the death of the prey. Continue Reading
The “Neo” specimen skull (Homo naledi)
Rising Star Cave is the site in South Africa excavated by Dr Lee Berger and his team. It was here that they found a new species of ancient human called Homo naledi. Now another chamber in the cave has been unearthed and yielded even more fossil bone evidence and this newest discovery has yielded a skull “wonderfully complete.”
It is believed H. naledi shared the landscape with early modern humans and probably other hominin species as well between 226-335 thousand years ago. Dr John Hawks of the University of Wisconsin-Madison is one of the research leaders and he says this newest discovery adds more evidence that the cave system was being used by H. naledi to cache their dead. The new chamber has been named the Lesedi Chamber. So far 130 bone pieces have been found in the new chamber. One skeleton is said to be remarkably complete and is being named “Neo.” Continue Reading
Last month the University of Texas at Austin published results of a study linking evolution of the human skull to bipedalism which has been a point of debate in the past. According to that study the evolution of bipedalism can can be detected in fossil human remains using a key feature of the skull.
At the base of the skull is a large hole where the spinal cord connects to the brain known as the “foramen magnum.” When we compare that hole with other primates we find that in humans it is positioned forward toward the center of the base of the skull whereas in other non-bipedal mammals it tends to be more at the rear of the skull.
Scientists have theorized that the reason for this difference in humans is connected with bipedalism and the need for balancing the head directly atop the spine which is necessary for walking on two legs. Although most researchers believe this is the case some have not. The controversy has gone on since 1925! Continue Reading
Very few fossil remains of chimps and gorilla ancestors have been found anywhere in Africa but here are a few:
Nakalipithecus nakayamai was found in 2005 by a team of Japanese and Kenyan researchers in mud flow deposits in the Nakali region of northern Kenya’s Rift Valley Province. For short it is simply known as the “Nakali Ape.” The fossil remains consisted of a jawbone and 11 teeth that were dated at 10 mya. The enamel on the teeth was thick suggesting its diet consisted of hard nuts and seeds. It is believed that this species is close to the common ancestor shared between humans, chimps, and apes (gorillas). It resembles Ouranopithecus fossils found in Greece.
Nakalipithecus nakayamai artistic impression
Ouranopithecus includes two species. One being O. macedoniensis (found in Macedonia and dated at between 9.6 mya- 8.7 mya) and the other being O. turkae (found in Turkey and dated at 8.7-7.4 mya). Fossil remains of Ouranopithecus were found in Greece and Bulgaria and it is believed to have been a Eurasian ape which is now extinct. Based on dental and facial anatomy this species may belong to the dryopithecines which were a tribe of Eurasian apes believed to be close early ancestors to gorillas, chimps, and humans (the Great Apes). However, opposing theories have this species more closely related to the Ponginae (orangutans). Some researchers consider this species to be the last common ancestor of humans and apes and the early ancestors of Australopithecines and Humans although this theory is highly controversial and not widely accepted. Continue Reading
Down in South Africa is a region known as the “Cradle of Humankind” not far from the city of Johannesburg. It is called by this name because more fossils of early human ancestors have been found there more than anywhere else. This is the very place where Paleoanthropologist Lee Berger found Australopithecus sediba in 2008 and Homo naledi in 2015.
This is also the place where in a fossilized human partial skull and brain were found back in 1924 by Raymond Dart of the Department of Anatomy at Witwatersand University. This find was and still is incredibly rare! This fossil is believed to be from the hominid species Au. africanus and it took a long while for it to be accepted by academia as an ancient human ancestor because at the time of the find Piltdown Man ruled the roost in Paleontology. It was only after Piltdown Man was exposed as a HOAX that academics began to take Dart and his find seriously.
The fossilized partial skull and brain belong to an individual hominid nicknamed “Taung Child.” (sometimes referred to as Taung Baby). This specimen is believed to have been a very young Au. africanus and the fossil has been called the most important anthropological find of teh 20th century. Taung Child is believed to have lived somewhere between 2.8-3.3 mya. Dart and other colleagues such as Dr. Robert Bloom believed Au. africanus was a “transitional species” of ancient hominid between apes and modern humans.
Taung Child (Au. africanus)
This is not a large skull. In fact you can almost hold it in the palm of your hand. It has been postulated the Taung Child may have been killed by an eagle or other large predatory bird and this is based on damage to the skull and eye sockets. Paleoanthropologists estimate that this specimen stood about 105 cm (3 1/2 ft tall) and weighed between 9-11 kilograms (20-24 lbs). Its cranial capacity was between 400-500 cc. It is believed to have lived mostly in a Savannah environment in Africa. It is also believed to have been a Omnivore. This skull was actually dug up by quarrymen working in Taung, South Africa and it along with other fossils were sent to Dart for his examination.
Australopithecus africanus was once considered a “killer ape” because its fossils are often found alongside animal bones but today we know that predators also preyed on this species of ancient hominid. It’s also believed this species lived together in groups for protection. Not only is Taung Child a member of this species but so is “Mrs. Ples.” Au. africanus should not be confused with Au. afarensis which is the famous “Lucy” species. Continue Reading