Paleoanthropologist Dr John Hawks, University of Wisconsin-Madison
H/T to JR Bentley for this link:
Interesting points and observations from the blog of Dr John Hawks pertaining to the Foramen magnum as an indication of bipedalism…….
“Our results show that locomotion does not influence FM orientation in marsupials, rodents, or strepsirrhines, and that basicranial evolution is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in the context of each taxon’s unique evolutionary and developmental history.”
This is not the first paper to come to this result; Ruth and colleagues cite a number of others who have had similar conclusions either from a comparative or mechanical point of view.
“The obvious question is: What about early hominins? Two genera of Late Miocene and Early Pliocene primates, Sahelanthropus and Ardipithecus, have been argued to show evidence of an orthograde postural repertoire, largely due to their basicranial form, including foramen magnum orientation. For Sahelanthropus there is no otherevidence of posture; for Ardipithecus there is an abundance of postcranial evidence, none of which argues compellingly for an orthograde posture.”
“Our data from all three taxa examined show that locomotion and posture do not influence FM position or orientation, and we conclude that this is likely in hominids as well. Anterior migration of the foramen magnum in early, small-brained hominids likely reflects changes in the relative sizes of the brain’s components (i.e., an expanded neocortex) (Holloway, 1966 and Holloway et al., 2003), and as such is still a useful indicator of the behavior and biology of extinct species. Bipedality, however, should be inferred from the postcranium.” Continue Reading
Photo of humanzee?
In Part 1 I posted about recent claims by Dr. Gordon Gallup that in the late 1920s a primate lab in Florida impregnated a female chimp with human male sperm and that the result was a living human-chimp hybrid. Due to moral concerns and the religious attitude of the US at that time and because of several moral questions the scientists involved in that endeavor terminated the infant a few weeks after it was born. I also posted about Soviet leader Josef Stalin’s program to create a human-ape hybrid under the direction of Dr Ilya Ivanov and that we still don’t know for certain if that program was successful or not. In this post I will address some of the “logistics” involved in creating hybrids in general and specifically human-ape hybrids.
Ape-Human Chromosome Comparison Chart
In the above graphic we see the chromosome comparisons of Orangutans, Gorillas, Chimps, and Humans. As you can see there are many similarities but there are also some differences. The similarities are due to humans and apes sharing a common ancestor about 7 mya (million years ago). As we diverged from that common ancestor some of our chromosomes changed as did those of the other primates so there are still similarities we share but there are some differences too. Continue Reading
A few days ago I posted about a MAJOR advance in genetic science involving the first known cloning of two monkey’s in China. The cloning experiment was a success and what that means is that we have now breached the last border for cloning primates making it now possible to even clone humans. As if that were not enough now something disturbing is brewing to the point that it is now being reported in the mainstream media. Scientists involved in the cloning said they have no intention of cloning humans and IF you believe that then I might interest you in buying a bridge to nowhere! I can absolutely guarantee you that some scientist in some lab somewhere WILL attempt to clone a human being!! But that is not the story in this post. Rather there is something perhaps even more disturbing than human cloning that very possibly has already taken place perhaps longer ago than we might wish to think and it involves the creation of something known as a “humanzee.” Or should I put that in the plural?
Dr Gordon Gallup is an evolutionary psychologist and he is the man who coined the term “humanzee” which is the name for a human-chimpanzee hybrid! Scientifically and theoretically it IS possible to breed a human and chimpanzee, bonobo, orangutan, and perhaps even other apes such as the gorilla. Sound like science fiction? Well think again because according to Dr Gallup this feat has ALREADY BEEN ACCOMPLISHED!!
Photo of humanzee?
Throughout the 20th century this hybridization was attempted more than once. Perhaps the most famous attempt was under former Soviet dictator Josef Stalin who wanted to create a super-soldier part man and part ape. In the old Soviet Union there were many secrets and information about what Soviet scientists were working on was rare and sometimes misleading. But what we do know is that Stalin actually DID have such an experiment going under Dr Ilya Ivanov. The question is did Ivanov succeed? Most information we have on the experiments indicates that he failed but that information may or may NOT be so. The Soviets were renowned for NOT reporting the truth. However, there was another experiment trying to create a humanzee and that experiment took place in the United States in Florida in the 1920’s according to Dr Gordon Gallup and it WAS SUCCESSFUL!! Continue Reading
Yesterday I posted about the 2017 major story in anthropology being the mastodon kill site found near San Diego, California which has turned everything upside down because it proves early humans where in North America at least 130 kya. This find has created a lot of controversy but, alas, the proof is there! However, I do NOT consider this story to be the major story of 2017! Rather, the REAL MAJOR STORY of 2017 is being ignored. Surprised? You shouldn’t be because the real story of 2017 completely upends all of our little theories when it comes to ancient human ancestors and researchers are hoping it will just go away.
9.7 mya fossil teeth found in Germany 2017
The REAL MAJOR story of 2017 was the discovery of ancient human ancestor fossil remains found in Germany which are believed to be from Australopithecus!! And that poses a little problem because Australopithecus fossil remains have never been found outside of Africa!!!
I reported and posted about this MAJOR DISCOVERY last October (2017) and you can find my original post on the sidebar to the right. Basically, this find put a final death blow into the Out of Africa Theory (OOA) as it was completely unexpected and finding EVIDENCE of Australopithecus outside of Africa just doesn’t fit what we though was. But obviously it was NOT! Continue Reading
“Humans are considered uniquely susceptible to Alzheimer’s disease, potentially due to genetic differences, changes in brain structure and function during evolution, and an increased lifespan. However, a new study provides the most extensive evidence of Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology in a primate species to date. Researchers found that the brains of aged chimpanzees, our closest living relatives, show pathology similar to the human Alzheimer’s disease brain.”
There is new research on the brain and Alzheimer’s from Kent State University that is quite eye opening and interesting. The study analyzed the brains of elderly chimpanzees our closest relatives whom we share about 98% of our DNA with. What they found was pathology in the chimp brains similar to what we see in humans suffering from the disease.
Estimates are that about 1/3 of people over age 65 suffer from some form of dementia in the USA and the most common cause of this dementia is Alzheimer’s. This disease is a progressive disease and it is irreversible. It results in impaired cognitive functioning and behavior changes including aggressiveness and combativeness in some patients. Genetic differences are attributed to explaining just why humans are so susceptible to the disease including changes in brain structure and functioning and researchers believe this is connected to our evolution and increased life span. However, this new research shows something similar also happens in the brains and functioning in elderly chimps! Continue Reading
“A team of scientists can verify that their 5 year long DNA study, currently under peer-review, confirms the existence of a novel hominin hybrid species, commonly called “Bigfoot” or “Sasquatch,” living in North America. Researchers extensive DNA sequencing suggests that the legendary Sasquatch is a human relative that arose approximately 15,000 years ago as a hybrid cross of modern Homo sapiens with an unknown primate species.”
So if we take the Ketchum report as factual then what we call “Bigfoot” came into existence 15 kya and it is a hybrid between Homo sapiens (modern humans) and an unknown hominid species. Fifteen thousand years ago the last ice age was drawing to an end as was the end of the Pleistocene Epoch and the present era known as the Holocene was just beginning. Mastodons were still roaming the North American continent at that time and they wouldn’t go extinct until around 10.5 kya. Smilodons were still around and they would not go extinct until about 10 kya. These were large cats found throughout the Americas and you likely know them as the infamous saber toothed cats or saber toothed tigers! Giant ground sloths were still around as well and didn’t go extinct until around 11 kya.
In terms of humans 13 kya sheep were being domesticated and the Sahara in North Africa was wet and fertile ground instead of the desert we see today! Humans were transitioning from hunter-gatherer cultures to farming cultures. Humans were Homo sapiens and they were AMH (anatomically modern humans) in form. Humans were already in the Americas including North America. The landbridge between Siberia and Alaska was still existent and some theorize that it was around this time that a large asteriod may have exploded over the North American continent wiping out some human civilizations and many of the large animals living there. Continue Reading
A research study published back in June of 2015 provides some interesting information about how Bigfoot may kill its prey. The research was conducted and published by Aaron Mills, Gerald Mills, and M.N. Townsend who discovered three bone piles and track evidence within a 17 mile radius of Mount St. Helen’s in Washington state. Also found were kill sites, animal skull remains, and animal vertebrae remains. What is interesting is scavengers seem to have avoided these sites which suggests the predator(s) may have been close to the areas.
Skulls of elk and deer showed their snouts broken by blunt force trauma and the spinal columns broken also by blunt force trauma. The predator must have been a very large creature in order to do this. No evidence was found of any clubs or weapons used to kill the deer and elk but that’s not unusual as the predator(s) likely reuse their weapons on other kills. In the case of bigfoot I’d say the weapon was likely a very large, heavy branch or rock.
What is interesting is the apparent way in which the elk and deer were killed at these kill sites. It is clear that the predator is an “ambush hunter.” It also appears that the predator first snapped the snout of the animal likely to hinder its breathing if it ran off so it could be easily followed. I think the predator then used the weapon to crack the spinal column into two or more pieces resulting in the death of the prey. Continue Reading
Here is an interesting email I recently received:
Dear Dr. Peron:
I have read almost every post on your blog including those about “bigfoot.” Your writing skills are beyond approach and your knowledge is phenomenal. However, I fail to understand why someone of your expertise would actually believe in something like “bigfoot.” I consider this “creature” nothing more than urban myth and misidentified animals such as bears. You and Dr. Jeff Meldrum at the University of Idaho and Dr. Susan Martinez at Columbia University are the only anthropologists I know of who actually seem to believe that this creature is real. I find that shocking! How can three obviously intelligent academics like yourselves believe in in such a thing or even consider it possible?
There have been thousands of sightings of this alleged creature but not one shred of evidence. Unless you want to include the complete farce of Dr.Melba Ketchum and her absolutely preposterous “DNA evidence.” Dr. Ketchum is not a reputable source as far as I’m concerned as she has some questionable associations and ideas and, besides, is a veterinarian and not an anthropologist at all. Surely with all of the sightings of this “bigfoot” creature there would be plenty of evidence and, in fact, the evidence would abound but that is not the case. Continue Reading