Is it possible that Neanderthals were actually in the Americas? According to mainstream theory (OOA) the Neanderthals made it just about everywhere except into the Americas. However, genetic studies are challenging that assumption! My own personal view is that they were and so was H. erectus. I think there is evidence of both having been in the Americas at one time or another as evidenced by Oldowan stone tools found by myself and many others in the Americas. And, also, the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey left his work in Africa and came to the Americas (Calico Hills, CA) fully expecting to find hominin fossil remains here like he found in Africa. Why was Leakey so convinced that he would find them?
Last week I posted about H. heidelbergensis and my conclusion is that he was an archaic Neanderthal. My conclusion also is that Heidelberg Man is likely not a common ancestor for the Neanderthals and H. sapiens (modern humans). That common ancestor may well be some hominim species we have not discovered yet and possibly might even be the Denisovans. That said, mainstream theory (OOA) holds the assumption that Neanderthals and modern humans share Heidelberg Man as a common ancestor and according to that theory the Neanderthals split from us about 300 kya. Neanderthals came to occupy most of Southern Europe, the Levant, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus region. We know this is so because we find their fossil remains in these places. They did not live in Sub-Sahara Africa and eventually they were replaced by modern humans. However, I hold the view that more than replacement the Neanderthals interbred with modern humans and I think frequently.
Back in 2011 genetic research conducted by a team led by Vania Yotova published research showing an X-linked haplotype of Neanderthal origins that is present in all non-African populations today. This study specifically focused on a very small part in the X chromosome known as the B006 haplotype and came up with some interesting conclusions.
What they found is that modern humans outside Africa share the B006 with Neanderthals and, in fact, this haplotype is very common outside Africa but it is nonexistent in Sub-Sahara Africa! What this suggests is that the B006 haplotype comes from a gene pool other than H. sapiens that lived outside of Africa and at some point interbred with H. sapiens and passed that haplotype on to H. sapiens. The contributor of this haplotype was the Neanderthals and was done via interbreeding with our species.
The study published a map showing the distribution of the B006 haplotype based on global samples of 6092 X chromosomes and it shows some highly interesting distribution. For instance, the region with the highest proportion of the B006 haplotype is the Americas and most specifically along the west coast of Canada! The haplotype shows this gene is present in Australia, Europe, North Africa, and Asia also. However, this haplotype is NOT present in Sub-Sahara Africa but only is found in North Africa! Now one would think that if all hominin species came out of Africa at some point as the OOA asserts then certainly the B006 haplotype would have a heavy presence in Africa but it DOESN’T and instead that strong presence is found in the America’s with the heaviest presence being in North America! Odd?
Another study back in 2003 by Yotova and Zietkiewicz on the B006 haplotype showed the same patter for the distribution of the Haplotype and shows that America and Europe have the same Tn allele which is T16 and that out of 74 samples an astounding 47 appear in the Americas! That’s about 64%!! Another allele known as T15 was not found in the Americas at all oddly. Even MORE interesting is that this data does NOT support the OOA theory so Yotova and her colleagues simply disregarded the American data in their analysis!! Another classic example of the evidence NOT fitting the theory so the evidence is simply IGNORED!!
Using the formula Yotova used in her first study and applying it to the date found in the Americas yields some surprises, however. It gives a result of the allele being 188 kya!! What this means is that the haplotype had around 190,000 years to evolve IN AMERICA!!
So, the highest concentration of B006 is in the Americas and NOT in Europe or Africa. Within the B006 haplotype there are two alleles. One is the T16 allele and that is found in the Americas and ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY (64%)!! The other allele T15 is NOT found in the Americas at all but is mostly found in Asia (88%).
Now if Neanderthals were NEVER in the Americas then how is this possible???? CLEARLY there is an America-Europe connection in this data! And since the T15 allele is NOT found in the Americas but is very common in the Amerindians then there is also an America-Asia GAP!! This is simply NOT POSSIBLE if Neanderthals were never in the Americas!!!
Supporters of the OOA theory of human evolution explain it away by first ignoring the data and then claiming that there must have been a “bottleneck” in the peopling of the Americas and that “genetic drift” played a great roll than previously thought in the genetic makeup of Native Americans. So basically, what they are saying is that a small group of Asians migrated into the Americas with a limited gene pool and that all other Amerindians came from this small group. But the evidence does NOT support this small group theory! In fact, it appears that there were rather large groups of Asians who migrated into the Americas at various times!
Regarding the “bottleneck” the OOA postulates that a large diversified population was drastically reduced due to famine, illness, or some other factor and those few people who survived the alleged catastrophe re-peopled the region and that they had a limited gene pool also. So which is it?
Neanderthals had the B006 T16 allele lineage and in my opinion they most likely migrated into Asia and eventually INTO THE AMERICAS! In fact, they may have actually been ran out of East Asia by surviving H. erectus there so they had to keep moving eastward or be slaughtered!! Then finding the Americas relatively free and open they expanded into the Americas as they had no or few competing hominin species there to compete with.
Now here is some more evidence for this. Blood samples from Amerindians and Neanderthals show a very high level of the “O” blood group!! Researchers were able to obtain blood samples from two Neanderthal fossil remains and they found that it belonged to the “O” blood group. So we know that this blood group dates back to at least the time of these two Neanderthals and likely much further back in time. The results of this research also showed the presence of the human 001 allele was ALREADY present in the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans! This confirms that the 001 allele emerged more than 1 million years ago and predates any divergence between modern humans and the Neanderthals! They also found that the “O” blood group was very COMMON in whatever that population was and, further, that the “O” blood group was/is almost exclusive to Amerindians with over 85% showing up in North America Native Americans and 91% showing up in South American Native Americans! This can only be if a group of Neanderthals migrated into the Americas. Notice the “O” blood group is highest in South America which is the furthest from the landbridge in Alaska that the OOA says the first Americans cross coming out of Asia.
So, according to the OOA theory Asia was the cradle of the people we call Amerindians yet Asia is the highest in the world for the type B blood group NOT the O blood group! America is the lowest in the B blood type and it is really low in Western Alaska which is an area the Amerindians would have had to have crossed migrating out of Asia into the Americas. How’s that??? And, btw, the B blood type is the RAREST on the planet with only about 16% of people having that type!!
In my mind this genetic and biological evidence only makes sense if Neanderthals WERE in the AMERICAS at some point! Otherwise the data is senseless!! This is why the B006 evidence found highest in North America was ignored by this study!! Sadly, this kind of BAD SCIENCE happens a lot. Either cram the evidence into the theory and make it fit OR IGNORE IT altogether because we must not upset our pet theory!! That’s NOT SCIENCE! Real science follows the evidence WHEREVER it leads and in this case the evidence CLEARLY points to the Neanderthals being in the Americas! In fact, if I didn’t know better and looking at the map I’d say Neanderthals might have even evolved in and/or originated the Americas and at some point crossed into age in the west and into Europe in the east!!! Pretty sure that the Alaska landbridge was NOT the only one around!! Just sayin’……………….