Something I didn’t know was that the Dingo (Australian Wild Dog) is not native to Australia. In fact, the dingo was brought to Australia about 5 kya by human settlers from Asia. So the dingo is actually a native animal to Asia not Australia.
Regarding ants researchers at the University of Wurzburg have discovered that ants dress the wounds of their comrades suffered in battle. They believe such behavior is unique in the animal kingdom. The scientists studied the African Matabele ants and found that they actually do a pretty good job with their battlefield treatment. Without such medical attention about 80% of the ants would die but after getting the medical treatment only about 10% actually die.
Researchers consider this discovery astonishing because no other insect is known who does this. This species of ant lives in sub-Sahara Africa and often battles termites. They kill the termites and take them back to the nest and eat them. Termites are well armored and have powerful jaws and in battles they often bite off legs from the ants. When this happens the injured ant calls for a “medic” by excreting a chemical substance. The “medic” carries the injured ant back to the nest where other ants treat the wound by “licking” it intensely. This is believed to be a cleaning of the wound possibly with some sort of excreted antimicrobial substances. Continue Reading
Is it possible that Neanderthals were actually in the Americas? According to mainstream theory (OOA) the Neanderthals made it just about everywhere except into the Americas. However, genetic studies are challenging that assumption! My own personal view is that they were and so was H. erectus. I think there is evidence of both having been in the Americas at one time or another as evidenced by Oldowan stone tools found by myself and many others in the Americas. And, also, the famous anthropologist Louis Leakey left his work in Africa and came to the Americas (Calico Hills, CA) fully expecting to find hominin fossil remains here like he found in Africa. Why was Leakey so convinced that he would find them?
Last week I posted about H. heidelbergensis and my conclusion is that he was an archaic Neanderthal. My conclusion also is that Heidelberg Man is likely not a common ancestor for the Neanderthals and H. sapiens (modern humans). That common ancestor may well be some hominim species we have not discovered yet and possibly might even be the Denisovans. That said, mainstream theory (OOA) holds the assumption that Neanderthals and modern humans share Heidelberg Man as a common ancestor and according to that theory the Neanderthals split from us about 300 kya. Neanderthals came to occupy most of Southern Europe, the Levant, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus region. We know this is so because we find their fossil remains in these places. They did not live in Sub-Sahara Africa and eventually they were replaced by modern humans. However, I hold the view that more than replacement the Neanderthals interbred with modern humans and I think frequently.
Map showing distribution of the B006 haplotype based on global samples of the 6092X chromosomes.
Back in 2011 genetic research conducted by a team led by Vania Yotova published research showing an X-linked haplotype of Neanderthal origins that is present in all non-African populations today. This study specifically focused on a very small part in the X chromosome known as the B006 haplotype and came up with some interesting conclusions.
What they found is that modern humans outside Africa share the B006 with Neanderthals and, in fact, this haplotype is very common outside Africa but it is nonexistent in Sub-Sahara Africa! What this suggests is that the B006 haplotype comes from a gene pool other than H. sapiens that lived outside of Africa and at some point interbred with H. sapiens and passed that haplotype on to H. sapiens. The contributor of this haplotype was the Neanderthals and was done via interbreeding with our species. Continue Reading
Back in 1914 workers at a stone quarry in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany discovered two human skeletons and bones from a dog. Along with these find they also found two art works made of bones and antlers. The two human skeletons and the dog were in a common grave at the site. The dog bones represent one of the oldest known remains of a domesticated dog on record and that dog was unique to Central Europe around 14 kya.
The couple and the dog were part of the people of Upper Kassel in the Rhine Valley who were ice age hunter-gatherers. The skeletal remains of the couple have been dated to about 11.5–12.1 kya +/- 100 years. Researchers have used the skulls of both the male and female to reconstruct their faces both of whom look very European. The male has a strong jutting lower jaw and chin which is a bit unusual in my opinion.
The people of Kassel lived in round tents made of leather that were similar to a yurt. Remains of these structures have also been found at Gonnersdorf and other places. What this may indicate is that these hunter-gatherers may have lived in a single area for part of the year and then they’d move on to another area most likely because they were following animal herds which was their primary source of food. These structures were not easy to erect or take down so this is why researchers think they put them up and stayed in a certain area for part of the year.
Oberdassel skeletal remains. Woman is at the top, man in the middle, and dog bones at the bottom.
It’s believed that these people used a bow of the Holmegaard type. An arrowhead found at the site has signs of being used and then retouched a few times. It also had traces of birch pitch which was used to affix the flint stone arrowhead to an arrow, spear, or knife made of bone, wood, or other material.
The Pacific island group called Tuvalu is often cited by global warming advocates as being most at risk from rising sea levels caused by global warming. However, scientists are now admitting that the island is NOT sinking after all but is, in fact, growing BIGGER.
Islands of Tuvalu
A study by the University of Auckland examined changes in the geography of the island group between 1971-2014 and found that about 3/4 of the islands grew during that period by 2.9% even though sea levels rose twice the global average in the area. In fact, sea levels in the region have been rising for the past 50+ years and instead of erosion the island group has been expanding according to the study.
Population on the islands is around 11,000 and nearby Kiribati has a population of about 107,000. In a paper for the World Bank last year researchers admonished New Zealand and Australia to open their borders to fleeing refugees and warned that the condition of the islands was catastrophic and dire! Turns out that is NOT true at all. Surprised? You shouldn’t be. Climate change is now being politicized and used for promoting open borders. Continue Reading
Mount Carmel, Israel
Mt Carmel is located in northern Israel with a number of towns situated there namely the city of Haifa which is on the northern slope and is Israel’s third largest city. The name “Carmel” is the Hebrew word for “vineyard” and “fresh” (planted). It has intrigued humanity for thousands of years and it is an important archaeological and religious site.
The sloped side of the mountain is covered with laurel trees, oak, pine, and olive trees. It is nothing short of majestic! Atop the mountain stand the University of Haifa. Several caves dot the mountain along with many rock shelters. The remains of Neanderthals were first discovered on the mount by Dorothy Garrod between 1930-32. She also discovered the remains of H. sapiens on the mount during the same time. Garrod discovered the skeleton of a female Neanderthal which came to be known as Tabun I and it is now regarded as one of the most important human fossil remains ever found. The strata record of the mount spans 600.000 years of human activity so Mt Carmel has been important to humans for thousands of years, in fact.
Several well preserved Neanderthal burials have also been found on the mount along with those of H. sapiens. Evidence of the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to agricultural societies is also found here. In fact, Mt Carmel is sort of a microcosm of human history and evolution!
Mt Carmel at sunset
The ancient Canaanites considered high places such as mountains to be sacred and Mt Carmel was one of those places they considered as such. The Egyptian Pharaoh Thutmose III referred to a “holy headland” in the Canaanite territories and some researchers believe this to be a reference to Mt Carmel. In the Bible’s Book of Kings it says an altar was built on the mount which had become ruins by the time of Ahab so the Prophet Elijah built a new altar there. Pythagoras is said to have visited the mountain because it was considered a very sacred place. In fact, it was considered the most holy of all mountains! Access was forbidden to many people at that time, reportedly and Tacitus wrote that an oracle was once situated on the mountain. He also said that the Roman Emperor Vespasian would consult that oracle. Tacitus also said that there was an altar on the mount without any images engraved upon it and without a temple around it. Just a simple and plain crude altar. Continue Reading