“The Northern Toltec in the American Southwest”
Authors: Dr Roberto Peron, Barb Benson, Rob L.
Dr. Cyclone Covey was a history professor at Wake Forest University in North Carolina and he had some interesting theories. One book he authored entitled “Calalus” tells of what he believes was a Roman Jewish colony in Arizona northeast of Tucson. He believed the “Tucson Artifacts” were real although most scholars believe them to be fakes. I’ll be posting about these artifacts after I examine them myself very soon.
Covey believed various Jews sailed from the Portuguese port of Porto Cale and founded a city in Florida which they named “Cale.” Today this alleged ancient settlement is known as Ocala which is in North-Central Florida. He also held the view that some Jews escaped Rome and they also set sail to the Americas from Porto Cale in Portugal. Once across the Atlantic they established a Jewish-Roman colony in 775 A. D. near Tucson, Arizona. Further, he believes that during this time the Toltec controlled most of what is today Arizona and New Mexico and that they continuously fought with these new arrivals from Europe until decades later when they finally defeated them and took the Jews captive after destroying their two cities in Arizona. So, these northern Toltec took the Jewish-Roman survivors captive and marched them to Tula, the Toltec capital in Mexico. He also points out that the Toltec emperor at this time was white skinned with a beard! That the Toltec may have dominated Arizona and New Mexico is believed to be so by several researchers so Covey’s thesis is not all that far-fetched!
In regards to these Northern Toltec some researchers believe them to have been the people we call the “Hohokam.” The Hohokam are best known for the massive canal system then constructed in what is today the modern city of Phoenix, Arizona. In fact, these canal systems are STILL in used today by the City of Phoenix! They used the canals for irrigation so they could crow crops in the desert. In all they built more than 250 miles of these canals. They were between 2 and 3 feet wide and about 2 feet deep. They used caleche to line these canals putting it on about 2 feet thick. They let it dry and then added yet another layer. These canal systems was used to irrigate the entire Gila River and Salt River basin!
The area where Phoenix stand today was a major Hohokam center who turned the barren desert into an agricultural oasis which is no small feat. They grew corn, beans, flowers, and other plants and crops. This oasis attracted wildlife and it appears that the Hohokam had no shortage of food. Early settlers in Arizona believed this land to only have been lived in by the Apache and a few Pueblo tribes in northern Arizona. They believed the Zuni only lived in 7 pueblos in eastern New Mexico. It wasn’t until the 1800’s that the ancient canal system was discovered and it changed everything we thought about settlement in the American Southwest!
We know little about the Hohokam but several scholars believe they may well have been a northern branch of the Toltec. Phoenix would have likely been the center for these northern Toltec where the Gila and Salt Rivers meet. But, their culture stretched way beyond that area because we know it stretched all the way South to Tucson, wast to Prescott, east to Whiteriver and Black River in the White Mountain area, along the Mongollon Rim, and north to just beyond Flagstaff. This is a huge area!
When it comes to the Hohokam we aren’t talking some primitive small culture. We are talking about a high culture that was widespread across the Southwestern US and northern Mexico! A civilization that obviously had a large degree of engineering know-how! Further, as we find in other cultures a map of the river systems usually gives us some good clues about the civilization itself and in this case it is no difference. The rivers hear flow into the Colorado River between what is today Arizona and California. The waters flow out into the Colorado Delta near Yuma and out into the Sea of Cortez in Baja California. Some sort of use of BOATS does seem POSSIBLE! And, this water traffic may well have extended all the way up into the territory of the Hohokam! Most researchers consider the Native Americans of the US Southwest to have been primitive but the EVIDENCE suggests otherwise! The Hohokam had an amazing degree of engineering knowledge and it would have been no “biggie” for them to have built boats too.
The Hohokam did NOT live in mud and stick houses either! Instead they lived in large pueblo buildings much like those we find at Chaco Canyon. When the first white settlers arrived in Arizona and New Mexico they found primitive Native Americans living in stick and mud pueblos but what they didn’t know is that there once had been a fantastic and sophisticated culture of which these Native Americans were likely a part of, the Hohokam Culture. But that high culture had disappeared before the white man came hundreds of years before.
In terms of clothing the Hohokam did NOT dress in buckskins but in clothing made of beautifully colored cloths and ponchos! Their pottery making skills were amazing and we also find that they made various artifacts out of SEA SHELLS! And these are from the Pacific Ocean not the rivers! And then there are the ball courts. The SAME kind of ball courts we find amid the ruins of the Toltec in Mexico, the Aztec, and the Maya. More about that later.
In the next post we’ll take a look at more evidence and especially a clearly Toltec ruin sitting north of Flagstaff, Arizona that can still be seen today! We’ll also explore all those “rumors” about a “Aztec pyramid” in the Flagstaff area that really isn’t “Aztec” at all but may well be TOLTEC, the forerunners of the Aztec and Maya. And we’ll talk about my experience with this “mythical” pyramid a bit too. Well also take a look at those Tucson artifacts and the story involving the Northern Toltec and these alleged Jewish Romans in Arizona and more. Stay tuned………
Dr. Cyclone Covey’s Thesis on the Toltec: pg 293-296