Almost all humans today of non-African heritage have some small percentage of Neanderthal DNA in them but the question is why don’t we have more? We know Homo sapiens (modern humans) interbred with Neanderthals so it’s logical to assume that we’d have more of their DNA in us but we don’t. Turns out it is all apparently because of the Y chromosome!
Researchers believe it was the Y chromosome that was key in keeping modern humans and Neanderthals apart often creating conditions that led to miscarriages. It’s assumed that most Neanderthals died out about 40K years ago. Some were assimilated via interbreeding with modern humans but others died of disease to which they had no natural immunity to. H. sapiens came out of Africa, perhaps, and into Eurasia and they brought their diseases with them. We’ve seen it time and time again with the Spanish and the Native Americans and all over the world as new populations move in, or conquer, and the native populations are almost wiped out by diseases they brought with them because they have no natural immunity to such diseases like smallpox, measles, etc.
The Neanderthal genome was successfully sequenced in 2010 and it contains a wealth of information not only about them but about us. The genomes showed that Neanderthals did in fact interbreed with H. sapiens and anywhere from 1.5% to 2.1% of DNA in non-Africans is of Neanderthal origin. But the last sequencing was the Neanderthal Y chromosome and in both species of homins it is the Y chromosome that determines if one is born of the male sex. Researchers have now completed the first in-depth study of the Neanderthal Y chromosome focusing on a Neanderthal male whose remains were found in El Sidron, Spain. This study confirms previous research that supports the theory that Neanderthal and H. sapiens Y chromosomes diverged about 600kya.
Further study and analysis has now revealed that genetic mutations may explain why the Neanderthal Y chromosome was mostly lost in H. sapiens. Three mutations have been found that can trigger immune responses from pregnant women that lead to miscarriages and two of them are unique to Neanderthals. Thus, there were genetic incompatibilities between the two homin species that appear to have been designed to keep us apart from the Neanderthals.
Immunity incompatibilities are important especially in population isolation lead researcher Fernando Mendez said. Further study and analysis of the Y chromosomes from more specimens of Neanderthal male remains is planned and further study may even confirm the theory that these gene mutations kept modern humans and Neanderthals apart in ways we do not know yet.
All this said I must still point out that there are some modern humans, Homo sapiens, that have some very distinct Neanderthal traits such as the large size and the distinctive bun at the base of the skull. How do we explain that? It would appear that some Neanderthals inbred with H. sapiens more than others and that the Y chromosome did NOT cause miscarriages but the birth of hybrid offspring was successful.
New DNA evidence suggests that infectious diseases have been around a lot longer than we previously thought at it is also suggesting that humans coming out of Africa may have infected Neanderthals who likely did not have a natural immunity to the diseases. Although this did not cause Neanderthals to go extinct it certainly would have contributed to it.
Cortez arriving in Mexico City
When Cortez and his Spaniards invaded Mexico the Mexica (Aztecs) had no natural immunity to the diseases like smallpox that they carried with them. Thousands of Mexica died of smallpox and other diseases that Europeans had natural immunity to. The same scenario played out in the US and South America when Europeans arrived and native populations became infected causing thousands of deaths. So it is no stretch of the imagination to see how Homo sapiens coming out of Africa could have brought infectious diseases with them to which the Neanderthals had no natural immunity and resulted in their demise.
This new information comes from Dr Charlotte Houldcroft published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology. She suggests that H. sapiens coming out of Africa would have been a “significant reservoir of tropical diseases.” She goes on to suggest that such disease infecting the Eurasian Neanderthals would have been catastrophic. This would have tipped the balance of their survival. She further suggests the scenario may not have played out like it did when Cortez or Columbus came to the Americas but I think she is likely wrong about that assumption. I think that it is HIGHLY likely that it did play out in the SAME pattern as that of Cortez and Columbus when they came to the Americas.
Finally some evidence and theory that makes sense as to what the fate of the Neanderthals was instead of the mythical theory that they just sort of disappeared into thin air!!!
For more information on this subject see:
All around the world we find huge rock carvings or are they? We are told that they are simply rock formations that look like faces, camels, frogs, etc. Of course we are also told not to believe anything we see with our own eyes because our minds often play tricks on us. Frankly, I’ve always found that to be a big bunch of horse shit! The unstated message is that we must not trust ourselves and what we think we see is not what we see, apparently. In other words we must DOUBT ourselves…about EVERYTHING! Bullcrap!!
I DON’T hold the view that most people are idiots. In fact, I hold just the opposite view. That is that most people are intelligent to varying degrees and most people KNOW what they see. Most people can figure out so called “mysteries” without help from some “expert.” People aren’t stupid and the sad fact is we’ve been taught to doubt ourselves when there is no real reason to do so. And that brings us back to the rocks……
“Homer Simpson” rock formation on Mt Lemmon, AZ. The rock formations are known as the Hoo-Doo Rocks.
In South America we find cliffs that appear to have been shaped into things like camels, frogs, human faces, horses, etc. In the American Southwest we find the same types of formations and now they’ve found the same in Bulgaria (see link below). We are told that these are simply nothing more than the products of wind and water erosion. Ah yes, we must continue to LIE that ancient humans were barbaric hunter-gatherers with little to no civilization and even less technology. We must continue the LIE that ours and ours alone is the peak of human innovation, civilization, and technology as we go to and fro steeped in our own psychotic sense of egotism! However, the EVIDENCE does NOT support the lies! In fact, the EVIDENCE seems to support just the OPPOSITE!! Continue Reading