I’m about halfway through Dr Susan B Martinez”s book entitled “The Mysterious Origins of Hybrid Man.” She presents some interesting information and hypotheses. Her basic premise is that human evolution is not linear, that is, one species did not evolve into a higher species of human. Rather, she postulates that there were various species of ancient human ancestors and they interbred, thus, creating hybrids. This idea is not new as some early scientists presented the possibility of such in the 19th and 20th centuries. Rather than evolution, Martinez suggests, it has been a matter of interbreeding beginning with the first two “races” (which are really human ancestral subspecies) known as Ardipithecus ramidus and a race she calls the “Ihin.”
Ardipithecus ramidus was first discovered in 1994 and in 2009 researchers announced the discovery of a partial skeleton they named “Ardi.” Some paleontologists believe Ardi is a human-ape common ancestor meaning it would be a common ancestor for both humans and apes. Ardi’s fossil remains were found alongside fauna remains indicating she lived in a wooded environment and this challenged the idea of the open savanna theory which holds that humans learned to walk upright as climates became drier, more open, and grassy. Ardi lived in East Africa about 4.4 mya according to current thought. Ardi stood about 4 ft tall and weighed about 110 lbs.
Dr. Susan B. Martinez, Anthropologist and Author
The “Ihins” were a race of ancient human ancestors who were small like H. floresiensis. They were highly intelligent and very spiritual. The interbreed with Ardi’s species and produced the first hybrid which we know as Australopithecus. Continue Reading
I ran across this article in the BBC this morning and found it interesting. Despite all of our knowledge and science it seems that sometimes the old remedies can do things that science can’t. Superbugs are a growing problem as common illnesses are becoming resistant to antibiotics due to their overuse.
Researchers recreated the 1000 year old remedy found in a 9th century Anglo-Saxon medical book. They applied each ingredient to the MRSA bacteria but nothing happened. However, when they combined the ingredients (as the remedy demands) they were astonished to find that it almost killed all of the MRSA bacteria!
The remedy calls for a combination of onion, garlic, and cow stomach. Specifically, it directs you to combine equal amounts of garlic or other allium (leeks or onions) finally chopped and crushed into a mortar for 2 minutes. Next you must add 0.87 fl oz (25 ml) of English wine from a historic vineyard near Glastonbury to the mixture. Next you dissolve bovine salts in distilled water and add it to the mix. Finally, you must chill it for 9 days at 4C.
Are there other “wonder” remedies in ancient medical texts that might help us conquer the emerging superbugs of today? I think that highly likely. Our ancestors were not idiots!
The fossil record is full of anomalies (things that deviate from what is standard, normal, or expected) and this is especially true when it come to the fossil record of modern humans and our ancient ancestors. The latest anomaly to arise surfaced earlier this month in Ethiopia when it was announced that a grad student from Arizona State University working on a dig discovered the oldest modern jawbone every found 2 years ago.
Image of the jawbone discovered in Ethiopia by ASU grad student 2 years ago.
It is believed that the fossil jawbone comes from close to the time that the Homo genus (modern man) split away from our more ape-like ancestors with the best known of those being the infamous “Lucy.” The jawbone fossil has been dated at 2.8 million years old thus pushing back the fossil record of the Homo genus by roughly 400K years. The fossil was actually found TWO YEARS AGO near where the fossil remains of “Lucy” were found.
Mainstream anthropology holds that our species, Homo sapien sapien, are the sole surviving members of our kind which may or MAY NOT be the case, frankly. The jawbone was discovered by Chalachew Seyoum who is an Ethiopian grad student at ASU. At this point it is not clear if the jawbone came from a known early species of the Homo genus OR if it comes from a new species of the Homo genus.
So what’s the anomaly? Well it seems that this fossil jawbone has some combined features. That is to say that the hominid it came from had primitive features such as chin shape mixed with some more modern features such as slimmer teeth unlike the large molars found in Lucy’s kind. Lucy comes from the Australopithecus genus by the way and not the Homo genus.
So this jawbone exhibits both primitive and modern characteristics but it is NOT the first that has demonstrated such mixed traits as, in fact, several fossil remains have been found that have a mixture of primitive and modern features. Could this jawbone be from a “transitional” species of the Homo genus? A “missing link” perhaps? Well that is possible based on the mixed features but right now all we have is a jawbone and no skeleton so before I’d say it is a “Missing Link” I’d have to see more remains of this creature. Continue Reading
Earlier this month I posted about the recent discovery of the legendary Lost City of the Monkey God also known as La Ciudad Blanca (“The White City”) in Honduras. I’m keeping an eye on this discovery because IF the ruins discovered are really the lost city then that would be phenomenal. But, the question is….IS IT REALLY the Lost City of the Monkey God? Let me begin with a letter from the famed Spanish Conquistador Hernan Cortez.
“….I have trustworthy reports of very extensive and rich provinces, and of powerful chiefs ruling over them, and of one in particular called Hueitopalan, and in another dialect Xucutaco, about which I possessed information six years since, having all this time made inquiries about it, and ascertained that it lies eight or ten days march from that town of Trujillo, or rather between fifty and sixty leagues. So wonderful are the reports about this particular province, that even allowing largely for exaggeration, it will exceed Mexico in riches, and equal it in the largeness of its towns and villages, the density of its population, and the policy of its inhabitants.” [Hernan Cortez, 1st Letter to Charles V]
Cortez (or Cortes if you prefer) apparently first heard of the Lost City around 1520 and believed it to exist in the dense jungles of what is today Honduras’ Mosquito Coast. But, the famed Conquistador was not the only one to write about what he’d heard about the White City as Catholic Bishop Cristobal de Pedraza also wrote about it in a letter to the Spanish King Charles V (Carlos V). Bishop de Pedraza describes a mysterious city somewhere in the Honduran jungle located in a valley and, strangely, he also wrote that his guides told him that the people who live in the city ate on golden plates. Of course, this peaked the interest of the Spanish explorers as their primary goal in Mesoamerica was the discovery of and accumulation of gold and treasure. Continue Reading
“The old depiction of linear evolution
from ape to human
with single steps in between
is proving to be INACCURATE.”
Dr. Carol Ward, Professor of Pathology & Anatomical Sciences
MU School of Medicine
Dr. Ward’s comment above was made this month in regards to ancient human fossils found that reveal diversity in the body structure of ancient human ancestors. The fossils make it clear that ancient human ancestors had diverse facial features and also in their body types and jaw features.
In my mind this proves beyond doubt, once again, that human evolution is NOT a linear evolution with small steps in between leading from ape to man. Our evolution is not a tree at all but a VERY TWISTED BUSH!
Sometimes I read new research and I REALLY wonder just what in the hell has happened to COMMON SENSE and LOGIC in the human species today. The latest case in point comes from the University of Cambridge. Researchers at Cambridge have reveal a NEW REVELATION! Or maybe it’s an EPIPHANY!! Seems that scientists there have determined that early human ancestors had a diverse range of body types just as humans today have a diverse range of body types with some being skinny and gaunt while others are robust and large.
In the study of human evolution body size is considered to be one of the most important characteristics of early human ancestors. Before 1.7 mya (million years ago) early human ancestors like the Australopithecines were seldom over 5 feet (1.5 meters) tall or had heavy body mass. Australopithecus ramidus, simply known as “Ardi,” lived about 4.4 mya and stood an average of 4 feet (1.2 m) weighing about 110 lbs (50 kg). One of the earliest known hominids is Sahelanthropus tchadensis who lived about 6 or 7 mya and was about the weight and height of a modern chimpanzee. Now if you known anything about chimps or apes in general and especially if you’ve ever worked with them or observed them closely in a zoo then you know that no two are exactly like. Some are large, others are small. Some are gaunt while others are overweight. Some are a bit taller than others and what this all adds up to is that their body types are JUST LIKE HUMANS when it comes to diversity.
It is only logical, therefore, that early human ancestor would have had a range of body types just as we do today. One thing about nature is that it loves DIVERSITY and we see this diversity all around us. No two flowers or snowflakes are exactly the same. No two of anything in nature are identical and that makes DIVERSITY the general rule of nature so why would our early ancestors not have a range of body types?
For specifics on this new revelation see the reference link below. One thing I do want to point out from the article is that it states that Homo erectus was “small bodied…averaging less than five foot (152 cm) and under 50 kg…”. That’s NOT necessarily correct. Some members of H. erectus ranges anywhere between 4 ft 9 in tall (145 cm) to 6 ft 1 in (185 cm) tall with some even being taller. The weight range for this species is believed to have been between 88–150 lbs (30–68 kg). In FACT, there was a LARGE amount of variation in the size of H. erectus with the largest being found in fossil remains from Africa. Remains found in China, Georgia, and Indonesia tend to be a bit smaller. Continue Reading
Scientists at Harvard University have successfully added Mammoth DNA to Elephant cells and it appears everything is progressing perfectly. This cell splicing puts us one step closer to bringing back the prehistoric Mammoth as a hybrid. The splicing is considered a major step towards bringing the creature back. This is the first time mammoth genes have been ALIVE in more than 3300 years!
Harvard genetics professor George Church used a new technique which allows researchers to make precision edits to DNA so they can replace sections of elephant DNA with mammoth genes. Church is quoted as saying, “We now have functioning elephant cells with mammoth DNA in them.” Church says there is more work to do and he and his team will be doing that work.
It is believed that the last mammoths died out 3300 years ago on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean. Harvard scientists obtained the mammoth DNA from these frozen specimens. Presently, there are three scientific teams attempting to reconstruct the entire mammoth genome and bring the creatures back to life, although they’d be hybrids as their DNA would be mixed with modern elephants. However, their work is not without critics who question the ethics of bringing back the mammoth and the purpose. Some question if the research and money would not be better spent focusing on modern elephants and their preservation.
So what do you think? Good idea or bad idea?